Wow! It’s V.S.L.M.’s anniversary in the blogging world today. It has survived for a whole decade it seems. 🙂 Let’s see if we can do one more! A big thank you to all the visitors and supporters over the years.
Perhaps it’s time to do another site re-design. While this one has worked just fine, I think I might’ve just gotten a bit tired of it. I’ll be on the look out for something new in the coming weeks.
Researchers investigating a 14th century burial ground have identified a rare case of “coffin birth” – a gruesome phenomenon in which a deceased pregnant woman’s fetus is expelled within the grave.
The remains of a mother and fetus were buried alongside those of two other children in the early days of the Black Death in Italy, however researchers cannot say for certain that they died of the plague [Credit: Fabrizio Benente (Universita di Genova – DAFIST)]
The event, which has seldom been reported in archaeology, is known as postmortem fetal extrusion. It results from a build-up of gas pressure within the decomposing body.
“In this case, we have a partial expulsion of a 38- to 40-week-old fetus, which was found to be complete and to lie within the birth canal,” Deneb Cesana, at the University of Genova, told Seeker.
The remains of the woman and her unborn baby were originally uncovered in 2006, interred with two other young individuals that scientists say were aged 12 and three years old. Only recently has the discovery been fully investigated.
The research was led by Cesana and her colleagues Ole Jørgen Benedictow, a plague historian at the University of Oslo, and Raffaella Bianucci, a bioanthropologist at the University of Warwick in England. Their work appears in the journal Anthropological Science.
The gravesite was found in the cemetery of the “ospitale” (hostel) of San Nicolao di Pietra Colice, located some 45 miles from Genova.
The hostel, which also housed a church, was situated in the Northern Apennines at about 2,600 feet above sea level, and was used as a resting place by travelers and pilgrims heading to Rome and trekking along the two major transit routes of the Liguria region.
“The woman was found laying slightly on her side, while on her left there were two young individuals of unknown sex,” said archaeologist Fabrizio Benente, of the University of Genova.
Benente, who was not involved in the anthropological study, directed the excavation campaign with a team of the International Institute of Ligurian Studies and the University of Genova.
“This was the only multiple burial found at the cemetery,” he said. “The others were all single graves.”
(a) Skeleton of the adult female (b) Skeleton of the 12-year-old sub-adult (c) Skeleton of the 3-year-old sub-adult (d) Skeleton of the 38–40-week-old fetus [Credit: Cesana, D., Benedictow, O.J., & R. Bianucci]
He added that the corpses had been buried simultaneously and directly into the soil, and dated the burial to the second half of the 14th century.
The timing corresponded to the arrival of the Black Death in Genoa in 1348. The researchers hypothesized that the woman and the two children likely died of the bubonic plague.
Bianucci’s analysis confirmed that three of the four individuals – the woman, the fetus, and the 12-year-old child – tested positive for the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the plague.
“This is the first evidence of Y. pestis infection in 14th-century Liguria,” Bianucci said.
“Our finding supports the notion that the contagion, which had originally started from Genoa’s port area, progressively spread and disseminated through the main communication routes,” she added.
Anthropological investigations carried out and funded by the Archaeological Museum of Sestri Levante and the Archaeological Superintendency of Liguria showed that the woman, who was about 5 feet 11 inches tall, was between 30 and 39 years old when she died.
It emerged that she had several ailments during her life. Her teeth revealed localized periodontitis and linear enamel hypoplasia – a band-like dental defect that denotes childhood physiological stress – while her bones showed evidence of other diseases.
The woman also suffered from congenital hip dysplasia and was likely affected by Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease, a childhood condition that affects the hip, resulting in a permanent deformity of the head of the thigh bone (femur). She likely walked with a limp.
The skeleton of the 12-year-old showed signs of lesions that were possibly linked to metabolic diseases or nutritional deficiencies. The 3-year-old child had no evidence of disease.
The researchers have not yet conducted DNA analysis that will determine the sex of the children and whether they have a relationship with the pregnant woman.
According to Benente, it is possible that they were her children. He believes that they ended up in the mountains, far from the villages, because the hostel of San Nicolao might have worked as a lazaretto, a hospital for people afflicted with contagious diseases.
“She was in advanced pregnancy and limping,” Benente said. “This wasn’t the best condition to go on a pilgrimage to Rome, possibly with two kids.”
According to the authors of the study, every conclusion is premature before DNA tests and further research are carried out.
“At the moment we can really only say that the skeleton of this unfortunate and frail woman is providing us with a new case of coffin birth,” Bianucci said, “which adds to the limited number reported so far.”
The skeletons of plague victims, a Tudor bowling ball and medieval ice skates fashioned from animal bones are among hundreds of artefacts on display at a new exhibition showcasing the most interesting finds made during the Crossrail excavations.
What’s been unearthed undoubtedly offers a fascinating insight into London life over the centuries – but what will be the archaeological legacy of what is Europe’s largest infrastructure project?
Tens of thousands of artefacts have been dug up during work to create the 42km (26-mile) Elizabeth Line, which runs from the east to the west of the capital.
With careful planning, 20 sites were excavated by archaeologists at locations where ventilation shafts were put in, where railways entered tunnels and where new ticket halls were to be built.
“We’ve managed to take a slice down through London but also across London,” said Jackie Keily, the curator of the exhibition at the Museum of London Docklands.
One of Ms Keily’s favourite exhibits is a bowling ball discovered at the site of a Tudor manor house in Stepney Green.
“It’s amazing it survived,” she said.
“It had been in a moat which was boggy. Henry VIII brought in a ban banning commoners from bowling. It was only for the aristocracy.
“Stepney Green is now part of Greater London but it would have been a weekend retreat in the countryside.”
A chamber pot found beneath 19th Century terraced housing, also in Stepney Green, ranks as another highlight for Ms Keily.
“It dates back to when there were no indoor toilets or bathrooms,” she said. “This one is fabulous because it has a shocked-looking man saying: ‘What I see I will not tell’.”
The discoveries made were by no means restricted to those from Victorian, Tudor or medieval times though, with considerably older items being unearthed, including bison bone fragments in the part of the capital we now call Royal Oak.
Asked if there had been previous evidence of bison roaming there, Ms Keily said: “We kind of knew but it’s incredible to find the remains.
“There were three fragments of bison bone and one of reindeer from an antler. They were dated back to about 68,000 years ago.
“Some of the bones had traces of gnawing, possibly from wolves.”
Two finds from the Crossrail project have ended up among the 80 million specimens at the Natural History Museum: a piece of 55-million-year-old amber and two parts of a woolly mammoth jawbone. Both were discovered beneath Canary Wharf.
The bone find could prove to be important, as Jessica Simpson from the museum explains: “They can date the woolly mammoth specimen once it is off display and they might be able to determine when they became extinct in our region.
“The last known woolly mammoths were roaming a small part of northern Siberia about 4,000 years ago.”
For Ms Keily, the discovery that will perhaps provide the most significant element of Crossrail’s archaeological legacy is the human remains found at Liverpool Street.
Don Walker, senior human osteologist at the Museum of London Archaeology, analysed some skeletons found at Charterhouse Square in Farringdon.
He said of the discovery: “It was important because we found documented evidence of a Black Death cemetery dating to 1348 or 1349.”
Isotope, radiocarbon and DNA analysis was performed in an effort to reveal details such as how a person’s diet had changed during their lifetime and where they were likely to have lived.
Mr Walker said: “We don’t know much about how infectious diseases interacted with people in the past.
“If we can understand the evolution of infectious diseases such as the plague that will help us understand how diseases will behave in the future.”
Asked what the impact of the Crossrail excavations would be, he said: “I think it goes beyond archaeology and I’m certain there will be some benefits for future medical work as well.”
Dr Piers Mitchell from Cambridge University is president of the Paleopathology Association and was part of the team that found Richard III’s skull in a Leicester car park.
Asked if Crossrail would go on to be viewed as a significant project in British archaeology, he said: “The problem with Crossrail is you only get a little vertical shaft, a little box to excavate.
“That gives you a little vignette of life in the past. It’s a little bit frustrating.
“They’ve got lots of little circles and they are trying to interpret London from that.”
But he added: “Only time will tell. If interesting papers are published and we learn more about diseases of the past and how they are changing, it’s going to be a good resource to teach students with.”
Jay Carver, lead Crossrail archaeologist, believes the project will be held up as an example of how developers, engineers and archaeologists can work together and share finds with the community.
He said: “Every 10 years there’s a mega-project that involves a lot of archaeology; previously there was the Eurostar tunnel and then Terminal 5 at Heathrow.
“With each project we are developing the way we work with construction and engineering. In the past archaeologists and engineers have been at loggerheads.
“I think it’s been a really successful project.”
And it’s a project that is set to continue, with plans in place for Crossrail 2, the proposed north-south line from Epsom in Surrey to Broxbourne in Hertfordshire.
Stephen Fry has said he does not want to be a “numby” – not under my backyard – but, as a supporter of the Curzon Soho, objects to the plans as they stand.
And the Victorian Society warns Wimbledon is among the areas that face losing important architecture to Crossrail 2’s bulldozers – although a Transport for London spokesperson said: “Demolition is always our last resort.”
Back in east London at the Museum of London Docklands – a stone’s throw away from where engineers are putting the finishing touches to the Canary Wharf Crossrail station – Jackie Keily reflects happily on the impact of the several years of excavations.
“It’s been an amazing project,” she said.
“To be able to archaeologically take a slice through London east to west is pretty amazing.”
Tunnel: The Archaeology of Crossrail runs from Friday 10 February to 3 September 2017 at the Museum of London Docklands.
Juletiden is upon us and it already seems quite likely that there won’t be any ‘white Christmas’ this year. However, there was some snow leading up to mid-December but it didn’t stick around for too long. The ice, on the other hand, did, and I was happy to have invested in a solid pair of boots to help prevent undignified falls and broken bones. In case you didn’t know, Trondheim is a very hilly town and just when you think you can’t be standing higher than you already are, there’s another steep street leading upwards. So imagine then braving these ridiculously steep hills with their frozen streets up and down on a daily basis! It is indeed challenging, to say the least.
However, not all is gloom and doom. Trondheim’s central square was hosting a lovely Julemarkedet (Xmas market) which was all too short if you ask me, it…
“The English are noted among foreigners for their persistent drinking.” observed John of Salisbury, Bishop of Chartres from 1176-80.
But whatever they thought of the English reputation for drunkenness, the Normans appear to have had no problem with joining in our frolics…
Almost every Anglo-Saxon village had an ale house, also known as a ”Gild-house”. It was the heart of the community, where all important meetings took place, from business transactions to wedding celebrations. An ”ale” was the term used for a social gathering, and just about any event would merit an ale.
These could range from bride-ales (which is where the word “bridal” originates) to lamb-ales. Church festivals in particular were a good excuse for a knees-up. By the 13th century some bishops were so fed up with their parishioners’ bawdy behaviour that they tried to ban ales. Their pleas for decorum fell on deaf ears.
Scot-ales were particularly disliked by the clergy. ‘’Scot’’ means payment, and at a scot-ale that meant contributing a flagon or two of beer (an early form of ‘Bring Your Own’), or its money equivalent. In fact, many scot-ales were a means of raising cash for the host, and a lord of the manor hosting a scot-ale could insist on your attendance. Certain members of society could avoid scot-ales, such as the foresters and beadles who were exempted from compulsion in the Charter of the Forest of 1217.
A toast to your health
A common practice at any ale was to toast your fellow drinkers with a hearty ‘Washeil!’ (health be to you!–which later became ”Wassail” as in some Christmas carols) to which they would reply ‘Drincheil’ and duly drink. After a while the toast became a good excuse to get your drinking buddies to drink even more.
Gerald of Wales, Archdeacon of Brecon (1146–1223) recounts the story of a Cistercian abbot who challenged a weary traveller to a drinking game. Instead of the customary toasts of Washeil and Drincheil, the abbot changed them to ‘Pril’ and ‘Wril’ respectively. The pair continued toasting each other into the small hours of the morning. Unbeknown to the poor abbot, his drinking companion was none other than King Henry II. Fortunately, the king saw the funny side, greeting the abbot with “Pril” the next time he met him.
The staff of life
After bread, beer–or rather ”ale”, since at this time it was made without hops–was the staff of life. Because possibly polluted water was rightly considered too dangerous to drink, everyone drank beer, from small children through to grown men and women. For the common people, this wouldn’t change after the Norman Conquest.
Many different kinds of beer were available, from bright ale (which as the name suggests was clear, because the dregs had been allowed to settle before consumption), through mild ale (or ”small beer”) to extra strong twice-brewed ale. Sometimes herbs like rosemary, yarrow, betony, gale or bog myrtle were used to flavour the beer. Kent was particularly famed for its beer. Even the French were said to admire English ale, reputedly saying it could rival wine in colour and flavour!
An apple a day
Apples had grown in England for countless centuries, but it seems the Normans were chiefly responsible for introducing us to the joys of cider. William the Conqueror may have brought casks of cider with him when he invaded in 1066.
By the middle of the 12th century cider was being made in Kent and Sussex. It was said to rival beer in popularity, with the 12th-century guru of etiquette, Daniel of Beccles, declaring it to be the ‘Englishman’s drink’. If you had a choleric temperament, cider was thought to be good for you as it was cold and moist, and thus counteracted the warm and dry characteristics of a choleric drinker.
However, cider was not a drink embraced by all. In the 16th century, the diplomat Sir Thomas Elyot claimed that people in cider-making areas were pale and wrinkled despite being young!
In vino veritas
Wine was considered to be the most prestigious drink during the middle ages, and under the Normans our wine consumption increased. Although Daniel of Beccles would warn “Beware of drinking wine greedily like Bacchus”.
The Normans, and particularly their monasteries, planted vines; by the time of Domesday Book (1086) there were nearly 40 vineyards in southern England. The slopes below the monastery at Ely were even known as the isle des vignes.
Although the Normans had some success with wine production in England, English wine was still considered inferior to French wine. Fortunately, if the grapes were rated as being not ripe enough for wine they could be turned into verjuice, a sharp vinegar which featured heavily in medieval cuisine. The vineyards in Ely were particularly renowned for the production of verjuice. Cheap wine imports from Gascony would eventually cause the English wine industry to go into decline during the reign of Henry II (1154-89)
Medieval wine was considered past its best after a year, irrespective of where the wine had come from or its original quality. Wine travelled in barrels–bottling was a long way in the future–and once these were tapped the wine would begin to decline. ‘Gone-off’ wine could either be sold cheaply or perhaps spiced and sweetened to make it more palatable. One version of the latter concoction was known as Hippocras, which took its name from the bag it was strained through, the ‘Hippocratic sleeve’ reputedly invented by the Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates to filter water.
If selling bad wine wasn’t an option, or spicing it failed, you could try the following recipe from Guillaume Tirel ( known as Taillevent), 14th-century chef to Charles V of France:
To Cure Ropy Wine, or Wine that has Taken on the Smell of the Cask, or a Musky or Musty Taste.
Beat two pennyworth of ginger together with two pennyworth of zedoary [white turmeric] and set this powder to boil in two quarts of wine, skimming well, then pour it while it is hot into the vessel and stir it right to the bottom, them stop the vessel up tightly and let the mixture sit until it has settled.
Have you seen an air photograph of where you live? Perhaps you’ve got used to the view by using a website like Google Earth. These days it’s easy to get an aerial perspective on the world, but this has happened only recently. Our lavishly illustrated new book, Aerofilms: A History of Britain from Above, tells the story of how the entrepreneurs of Aerofilms Ltd turned aerial photography from a military specialism of the First World War into a commercial enterprise that would capture Britain from the air in hundreds of thousands of unique snapshots.
EPW046905, Wembley Park, the FA Cup Final between Sheffield Wednesday and West Bromwich Albion, 27 April 1935
The men and women of Aerofilms were running a business, but they created an archive that today throws light on the transformation of our built environment. This remarkable collection of aerial photographs spanning the years from 1919 to…